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Introduction to BIGDATA

Big Data is a large collection of data that is rapidly rising in volume. It is a data set that is so huge and complicated that no typical data management technologies can effectively store or process it. Big data is similar to regular data, but it is much larger. Following are the types of Big Data:

  • 1.Structured
  • 2.Unstructured
  • 3.Semi-structured
  • Big data can be described by the following characteristics:

  • Volume
  • Variety
  • Velocity
  • Variability
  • i)Volume - The term "Big Data" refers to a massive amount of information. When it comes to establishing the value of data, the size of the data is really important. Also, the volume of data determines whether or not a given data set may be classified as Big Data. As a result, while working with Big Data solutions, one of the characteristics to consider is 'Volume.'

    ii) Diversity - The variety of Big Data is the next feature to consider. Variety refers to a wide range of data types, including structured and unstructured, as well as heterogeneous sources. Most apps used to treat spreadsheets and databases as their only sources of data. Emails, images, videos, monitoring devices, PDFs, audio, and other types of data are now taken into account by analysis applications. This wide range of unstructured data creates certain challenges in terms of data storage, mining, and analysis.

    iii) Velocity - The rate at which data is generated is referred to as velocity. How rapidly data is collected and processed to meet needs determines its actual potential.

    Big Data Velocity refers to the velocity at which data pours in from sources like business processes, application logs, networks, and social media sites, as well as sensors, mobile devices, and so on. Large amounts of data are always streaming.

    iv) Variability - This refers to the inconsistency of the data, which might block the process of handling and managing data efficiently.

    Why should you take Big Data?

    Organizations can use Big Data to find patterns and detect trends that can be employed in the future. It can assist in determining which clients are most likely to purchase products or in optimising marketing campaigns by determining which advertising methods have the best return on investment. Big Data serves as a 'basis' for companies looking to begin AI projects. AI is mostly based on the same methodologies and processing skills that are necessary for Big Data environments. Organizations who want to use AI in the future would profit immensely from first establishing a solid and structured Big Data ecosystem.

    Many research and surveys demonstrate that Big Data investments are increasing year after year. Big Data is a trend that will continue in the next years, and investing time to learn about it is not a one-time investment.

    Frequently Asked Questions

    Big data refers to data collections that are larger and more complicated, especially when they come from new sources. These vast data volumes are simply too large for traditional data processing technologies to handle.

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    Freshers - Big Data Interview Questions and Answers

    Volume: Data warehouses hold a significant amount of data. The data may reach arbitrary heights, necessitating the examination and processing of massive volumes of data. Which can range from terabytes to petabytes in size.

    Velocity is a term that refers to the rate at which data is produced in real-time. Consider the rate at which Facebook, Instagram, or Twitter posts are generated each second, hour, or more.

    Variety: Big Data is a collection of organized, unstructured, and semi-structured data from a variety of sources. This wide range of data necessitates a wide range of analyzing and processing methodologies, as well as unique and relevant algorithms.

    Veracity: Data veracity refers to how trustworthy the data is, or, to put it another way, the quality of the data being evaluated.

    Value: Raw data has no purpose or significance until it is transformed into something useful. We can extract useful data.

    When we discuss Big Data, we must also discuss Hadoop. As a result, this is one of the most important interview questions. That's something you'll almost certainly have to deal with. Hadoop is a free and open-source platform for storing, processing, and interpreting large, unstructured data sets to gain insights and information. So there you have it. Hadoop and Big Data are linked in this way.

    HDFS uses the acronym fsck, which stands for File System Check. It's used to look for discrepancies and see whether the file has any problems. For example, if there are any missing blocks in the file, this command will notify HDFS.

    The common input formats in Hadoop are -

    • Text Input Format: This is the default input format in Hadoop.
    • Key-Value Input Format: Used to read Plain Text Files in Hadoop.
    • Sequence File Input format: This is used to read Files in a sequence in Hadoop.

    The core methods of a Reducer are:

    • setup(): setup is a method called just to configure different parameters for the reducer.
    • reduce(): reduce is the primary operation of the reducer. The specific function of this method includes defining the task that has to be worked on for a distinct set of values that share a key.
    • cleanup(): cleanup is used to clean or delete any temporary files or data after performing reduce() task.